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Educational sociology is a discipline that studies education sociologically, with the premise that it recognizes education as a social fact. Education is defined as a study of the relations between education and society.
To understand what Sociology of Education comprises, it is, first and foremost, imperative to define education from a sociological understanding.
Revision notes topic and education class deprivation occupation external factors speech codes restricted and elaborated codes. Education is a compulsory topic in A-Level sociology, through which students will examine the role and function of the education system.
The sociology of education is a detailed study of how different institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes.
A Level Sociology Deviance Revision has been designed to help students become familiar with sociological explanations of the following content:
- Crime, deviance, social order, and social control
- The social studies of crime and deviance by ethnicity, gender, and social class, including recent patterns and trends in crime
- Globalization and crime in contemporary society; the media and crime; green crime; human rights and state crimes
- Crime control, surveillance, prevention and punishment, victims, and the role of the criminal justice system and other agencies.
Functionalists believe that crime is constant in society; poor socialization and inequality result in no norms and values being taught. Moreover, functionalists believe crime is positive for society because it allows boundary maintenance and scope for adaptation and change.
Crime is Inevitable
Poor socialization results in not everyone being taught the same norms and values. The certainty of crime stems from the inequality that exists in society.
Crime is Positive
‘Boundary maintenance’ is the concept that crime is functional in society when there is the right amount. When people are punished for committing crimes, it teaches the rest of society not to go against norms and values, strengthening boundaries and preventing further crime.
Adaptation and Change
Some crime can be functional for society because it allows social adaptation and change; for society to have norms and values that change as a form of rationalism, a criminal act must occur.
Interactionists emphasize the social construction of crime, whereby an act only becomes deviant when labeled as such through social reaction. However, not every deviant act or criminal is labeled, and labeling theory is selectively enforced against some groups. Some sociologists believe libeling may cause an individual to be defined as a master status.
The Social Construction of Crime
The social construction of crime – a deviant is someone to who the label has been successfully applied, and deviant behavior is simply behavior that people so label.
Those labeled are labeled based on gender, class, and ethnicity. Officers’ typifications (stereotypes) of the typical criminal lead to them concentrating on types of people that are more likely to offend – for instance, by patrolling working-class areas.
Primary Deviance – deviant acts that have not been publicly labeled as a criminal.
Secondary deviance – deviant acts and individuals that are labeled. Once an individual has been labeled, people may only see him according to his master status, leading to a deviant career because they struggle to find employment.
Right realists see crime as a significant problem for society; they see the cause of it as partly biological and party social. Because these reasons cannot easily change, they focus on deterring offenders. On the other hand, left realists to believe crime is caused by relative deprivation, subcultures, and marginalization. The solution for such stems from reducing societal inequality.
Official statistics show men commit more crimes than women. However, sociologists disagree on the reasons why. Some sociologists argue that female offending rates are unnoticed and unpunished because the criminal justice system treats women more leniently through thoughts such as the chivalry thesis.
However, some sociologists believe the gender differences in offending are due to the way women are socialized, meaning they have less opportunity or desire to commit a crime. On the other hand, other sociologists opinion that women commit a crime, but men merely commit more due to ‘masculinity.’
A level sociology education notes help to prepare the examination of sociology and are helpful to achieve success as well. Some sociologists argue about this because they are more likely to offend due to poor educational achievement, dysfunctional family structure, and racist stereotypes portrayed in the media. However, some sociologists merely appear more criminal due to discrimination in broader society.